Upon the filing of a voluntary petition for relief under chapter 11 or, in an involuntary case, the entry of an order for such relief, the debtor automatically assumes an additional identity as the "debtor in possession." The term refers to a debtor that keeps possession and control of its assets while undergoing a reorganization under chapter 11, without the appointment of a case trustee.
Chapter 12 provides that a standing trustee will be appointed in each case, but in the ordinary course, actual operation of the farm will remain with the debtor. Additionally, the debtor, as debtor in possession, has all rights, responsibilities, and powers, as would a debtor in possession under Chapter 11. Chapter 12 does not provide for the appointment of creditors' committees.
Dischargeable debts are those debts that can be discharged through bankruptcy proceedings. Certain debts cannot be discharged through a bankruptcy proceeding. In a Chapter 7 bankruptcy, nondischargeable debts cannot be discharged at all, and in a Chapter 13 bankruptcy, these debts remain even after the repayment plan is completed.
Chapter 12 is a part of a federal law called the Bankruptcy Code. Debtors and the United States Bankruptcy Courts must follow its provisions. Each Chapter applies to a different type of debtor. For example, Chapter 13 applies to consumers or individual debtors, with regular income who want to repay their debts under a bankruptcy plan. Chapter 12 applies to certain family farmers.
The Bankruptcy Code requires an entity in possession, custody, or control of property of the estate, including exempt property, to deliver that property to the trustee, unless the property is of inconsequential value to the estate.